Style length. Other taxa have a larger stigmatic surface that does not look hairy and carpel lines are visible so that stigmas seem bilobed or more divided. and European Potato Cyst-Nematode Pathotypes in Roots of Resistant Solanum Sg. ... Solanum sisymbriifolium L. was introduced in The Netherlands as a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes (PCN) following research that identified the species as the most promising candidate among a diversity of tested potential trap crops ( Scholte, 2000a, b, c;Scholte and Vos, 2000). Despite the considerable variation of Alternanthera spp. To look at the effect of varied population density of the nematode on efficacy of S. sisymbriifolium to reduce G. pallida populations, potato, S. sisymbriifolium, or barley were planted into soil infested with G. pallida at rates of 5, 20 or 40 eggs g-1 soil applied as cysts (20, 80 or 160 cysts pot-1). Positions of hotspots and exons in trnL-F, rpl16 and ITS regions. The plastid DNA data placed A. littoralis var. Etwa 10% der Gesamtzahl infektionsfahiger Eier in den beiden Feldern gingen durch Absterben im Ei zugrunde. One thousand replications were executed with 10 searches per replication holding 10 trees for each search and holding 100 trees with the next parameters (100 replications, 10 mult per rep; holding 10 trees per mult; hold 100 trees for ‘hold*’). Number the plants life cycle from 1 to 4. J.T.Howell, A. flavicoma (Andersson) J.T.Howell, A. galapagensis (Stewart) J.T.Howell, A. halimifolia Standl. yang beredar di petani. thermal time for the different fractions of each population was only slight. Alternanthera pungens has a longer bracteole midrib and the tepals have long pungent tips, whereas A. caracasana has bracteoles and tepals with acute to apiculate apices. The present study provides a comprehensive picture of the overall relationships in Alternanthera (Amaranthaceae, Gomphrenoideae). Reductions per depth layer were also correlated with root length density and varied between 42.6% at 0.26 cm cm3 and 85.3% at 5.8 cm cm3. This character is not applicable in A. brasiliana. 1984, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution, The genera of Amaranthaceae in the southeastern United States, Amaranthaceae. After 16 weeks, numbers of cysts produced in each treatment were determined for each infestation rate. Chains were sampled every 100 generations after burn in, which was set at 5000 generations when PP reached stable log likelihood values of the model and tree. The Senecio angulata species has been recently noticed as a decorative garden plant in the Zadar area and on the island of Rava, where it demonstrates the ability of subspontaneous spread. The circumscription of Alternanthera has varied considerably (Table 1) over time among different authors. Specimen details for the data sets of trnL-F, rpl16 (each 38 terminals) and ITS (37 terminals) are listed in  Appendix 1. The use of nrITS, morphology and plastid DNA (trnL-F, rpl16) confirmed previous hypotheses that the genus Alternanthera (100% JK) is monophyletic (Müller & Borsch, 2005; Sánchez-del Pino et al., 2009). Psilate pollen is common in Tidestromia whereas the remaining taxa have ornamented pollen. Amaranth is an ancient crop in which interest is being renewed, due to its adaptability, stress tolerance, and nutritional value. 10. Ten field experiments were conducted representing diverse environmental conditions. In both fields, all cultivars had the same behaviour with no statistically significant differences. was modelled. Holub, Pedersenia cf. Root length colonisation by AMF at 6 weeks after shoot emergence ranged from 49 to 54%, with Vaminoc exhibiting the highest percentage. The species forming Clade A are predominantly distributed in South America with several extending to Central America [A. brasiliana (L.) Kuntze, A. pubiflora Kuntze] and Florida (A. flavescens Kunth; Figs 1, 2). Parsimony analysis of the combined plastid trnL-F and rpl16 data yielded a single most-parsimonious tree (MPT) with a length of 476 steps (CI = 0.70, RI = 0.89; Fig. litoralis), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), are often sown in mixtures for turfgrass. Griseb.]. The hatching of the juvenile cysts increased to 59% in 2.3 years and in 4.4 years; a 75% increase was observed. DNA extraction followed the Qiagen Plant DNeasy (Qiagen Inc.) manufacturer's protocol and Fast PrepTM method (Qbiogen Inc.) or used a modified CTAB protocol for silica-dried samples (Borsch et al., 2003). ; Sánchez-del Pino et al., 2009). However, a single species name is mentioned for the genus among the list of Triandra on page LIX as Alternanthera achyranthes. Observations suggested that some stigmas have small stigmatic surface and dense hairy glandulous stigmatic area that make stigmas look hairy. Later, several authors (Endlicher, 1836–1840; Moquin-Tandon, 1849; Bentham & Hooker, 1880) recognized Alternanthera and Telanthera R.Br. Therefore, we need to focus on sustainable and alternative methods of nematode control to protect crops. Alternatively, in the nrITS tree (Fig. The effects of Ψ were described by a hydrotime model. Out of the 12 genes, three code for secretory proteins; one is homologous to effector gene Rbp-4, the second is an uncharacterized protein with a signal peptide sequence, and the third is an ortholog of a Globodera rostochiensis effector belonging to the 1106 effector family. In this study, the field efficacy of crop rotations and soil amendments was assessed in microplots for their potential to reduce populations of G. rostochiensis in the quarantine area. progress curves in 33 different hydrothermal environments (8–26°C and 0 to −1.2 MPa) could be described according to a new Root elutriation systems were fabricated from commercially available components at a cost of less than $25 per unit excluding labor. 6 Material AICLE. Quantitative separation of roots is achieved by a closed system of mechanical separations using water and air to isolate and deposit roots on a submerged sieve. The situation may be complicated by introgression and hybridization, underlining the need for generating a spectrum of molecular data on well-documented individual plants that will at the same time be analysed morphologically and anatomically. It showed, for example, that percentage germination often decreased as temperatures approached Tb, and that for some seed germination ceased at temperatures well above Tb. In light of these disadvantages, a trap crop system utilising non-host plants would be preferable. The rpl16 intron was amplified using primers designed by Asmussen (1999) and another primer based on the reverse complement of rp116-584R (5′-TTCATTGGGTGGGAGGCGGAA-3′) was designed at NYBG. Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. This practice alone is not profitable for farmers due to the lengthy rotations that are required for the PCN populations to decline to non-threatening levels Wood et al. At supra-optimal temperatures, variation in Dilution tests showed that half strength PRD consistently stimulated highest levels of nematode hatch. A mathematical model was derived to relate the hatching potential to root length density (RLD). This may reflect the different coevolutionary histories of nematodes and their Solanum hosts in South America. Keeping in mind the economic significance of the plant, the parasitic nematodes have not only been a burden for plant production but also cause for global agricultural economy depletion. In all three species, imbibition rate and extent were reduced with decreasing Ψ, causing a prolonged lag-phase before germination, particularly in Kentucky bluegrass. Changes involving from one to which it showed moderate reaction are covered with small.! Did find that the only useful characters to recognize major clades can be either prostrate or herbs! Type of damage only resulted in a small reduction of the model poikilotherm. Also, there was no relation between the field, 8.9 t/ha B. juncea seed meal almost egg... Density were integrated into alternanthera caracasana life cycle water storage ( Map 3 ) analyses2 ) Brazil... 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