Sufeda was unknown. Evans, (1992) [12] and Singh (2018) [76, 77] contended that probably the best time to take cuttings from the field is at the beginning of the rainy season. Air layering was the main method for the spread of guava in the old days. Increasing the IBA concentration beyond 2000 ppm produced negative effects. Allahabad 0000002227 00000 n Four different concentrations of IBA viz., 2000ppm, 3000ppm, 4000ppm, 5000ppm were used in four time of layering (May, June, July and August). ( , 1999b in guava. Gently scrape off the bark around this point to remove a 1-inch ring. Share on Twitter. Read on for more info and some easy plants on which to try the process. With my latest method of Air Layering I use aluminium foil to wrap my marcot. Maximum values on various root and growth parameters i.e. Guava trees are well adapted to a wide range of soil types including sands, loams, rock-based soils, and muck. 0000001036 00000 n 0000006044 00000 n New Delhi (India) Indian Council of Agricultural Research. holding materials with IBA on rooting and survival of air layering in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. 0000009612 00000 n 0000008109 00000 n Planting seeds Guava seeds are started in nursery beds or pots before being transplanted in the garden. Air-layering is one method of propagating a fruit tree from an existing one, which will bear fruits sooner, and the fruits will taste same as the mother-plant. This morning I went out and noticed strange globular yellowish mushrooms around the base of the weed. These findings are more or less in conformity with the results reported by Bhagat et al. method of propagating fruit trees, which is called Air Layer-ing. (1993), ... and 86.7%) in both seasons, respectively. January 11, 2021 by admin 0 Comments. Share on Google+. Air layering guava tree. Share on Facebook. However, guava hardwood cuttings were found hard to root (Luis et al., 1986) [33]. Among the rooting media, moist sphagnum moss produced highest rooting percentage and root characters. Interested in research on Indole-3-butyric Acid? The rooting percentage (57.4%), number of roots per cutting (21.83), length of the longest root (20.96 cm), diameter of the main sprout (2.66 mm) were significantly higher in wounded cuttings which also recorded the lower days for first sprouting. Baghel et al. Share on Pinterest. ppm), T4 (200 ppm) and control (T0) were applied. A Guide To Growing Dwarf Guava Tree In Containers At Home, Guava Tree Pruning, Pollination And Propagation Of Guava Tree, Growing Conditions For Guava Tree. Air layering is pretty simple. inches bark just below the bud for rooting. Sardar. Study on the concentration of IBA and wounding effect in cuttings is also deficit. Water the soil so it’s moist 2 in (5.1 cm) below the surface. Use of seedling rootstocks is widespread in Jumla and research on the evaluation of clonal rootstocks for propagation has still not started. Many times the cuttings are ready by fall, but some cuttings may take two growing seasons to root. Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences 7(1), Influence of time ringing, wrappers and IBA on air layering in guava (Psiidium guajava L.) cv. Physiology of adventitious root formation. All rights reserved. Typically the best time to air layer is in early spring on the past year’s growth. January 11, 2021 by admin 0 Comments. The plant prepared by this method grows fast and give more production. 0000002097 00000 n Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The obtained results indicated that 3000 ppm IBA applied by painting girdled zone gave a significant increase in rooting percentage and the best root and growth characteristics (number of days for root appearance, number, length, fresh and dry weights of roots per rooted air-layer, survival percentage, plant height and number of leaves and shoots) as well as total content of carbohydrates and phenolics, and showed the shortest period required for root appearance in comparison with the other treatments. Air-layering is the most popular commercial method of vegetative propagation of guava in India. Data recorded in control was minimum as compared to other Propagation of guava by air-layering is done during summer . Enhancing area and production of cashew in Bastar. 5:27. With my latest method of Air Layering I use aluminium foil to wrap my marcot. 0000022669 00000 n (Horticulture) Thesis, submitted to Dr. Raut Y D. 1992. I have successfully air-layered the sweet lemon tree at our home garden and here are the step-by-step instructions on how to do air-layering. June-July is the ideal time for planting the layers and seedling. 2002. decora Using Indole-3-butyric Acid (IBA) in the Presence of Bacillus subtilis and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, A review: Macro-propagation of guava (Psidium guajava), Effect of IBA, time of layering and rooting media on air-layers and plantlets survival under different growing nursery conditions in guava INTRODUCTION, Physiology of adventitious root formation, Statistical Methods of Agricultural Workers, Organic Horticulture in Tribal areas of Chhattisgarh, All India Coordinated Research Project on Cashew. Different concentrations of IBA i-e T1 (50 ppm), T2 (100 ppm), T3 (150 Share on Facebook . (2008) [6] stated that soaking of guava seeds in distilled water for 48 hours recorded 96% germination. 0000005623 00000 n 0000028478 00000 n An experiment entitled studies on cumulative influence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and time of air layering in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Influence of time ringing, wrappers and IBA on air layering in guava Patil K D, Patel B N, Aklade S A and Patil S J. ... Tayade et al. Air-layering is the commercial method in practice for propagation of guava. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 19(1):. 0000010625 00000 n Amongst various concentrations of IBA, 5000ppm concentrations, The present investigation was taken up during rainy season of 2012-13 at Horticultural Nursery, College of Agriculture, Gwalior. The current experiment was conducted to study the response of Ficus elas-tica var. 0000008808 00000 n How to grow Guava Tree from cutting...In a potato. ... IBA has been found to be most effective in producing maximum number of roots with better vigour. Air layering is only reliable method of guava has an advantage over budding and grafting because, being on its own root the suckering problem is mini-mized and for stem cutting it require specialized envi-(Nelson 1954). 0000002379 00000 n With my latest method of Air Layering I use aluminium foil to wrap my marcot. Very few reports are available on guava air-layering in Bangladesh. Click on the following article to learn more about guava cutting propagation and growing guava trees from cuttings. 0000006553 00000 n Therefore, this investigation was carried out in the Hi-tech Greenhouse of Kalika nursery in Jumla, Nepal from February to July, 2018 to investigate the rooting response of MM111 apple rootstock to wounding (with or without) and various Indole-Butyric Acid (IBA) concentrations (0, 2000, 2500 and 3000 ppm). Steps for plant propagation by air layering: Shrub or tree with medium sized branches that are suitable for layering is selected. How To: Air Layer a Guava Tree. 0000002180 00000 n Wound an area in the middle of a branch by peeling the bark away, then wrap the moss around the cut and secure it with floral ties or plant twine. These wounds were covered with soil media containing The most common external factors are light, seasons, temperature, humidity, moisture level of cutting and rooting medium (Hartman et al., 1997) [22]. The experimental findings showed that the minimum days taken to root appearance (28.40days), maximum rooting percentage (92.20%), maximum number of roots per layer, An experiment was carried out during 2014-15 at Horticulture research center, Department of Horticulture, Chauras Campus, HNB Garhwal Central University, Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand India. Among the vegetative methods of guava propagation, air. In case of cutting, The maximum average stem diameter, leaf number, roots number per plant, root length and root weight was observed in the cuttings treated with IBA at 1000 ppm. Significantly maximum length of primary root (4.99 cm), diameter of primary root (3.286 mm), number of secondary roots (34.08/ air layer), length of secondary roots (2.858 cm), rooting success (82.68%) was obtained by the treatment combination G6M2 (IBA+NAA 7500 ppm each with Moss grass+coco-peat). Cold water also had a beneficial effect but soaking in hot water was harmful (Haq et al., 1973) [20]. Air-layering was evaluated as a commercial method of vegetative propagation of guava. Select a branch of about one year old and half an inch thick. The higher percentage of survival after transplanting the rooted air-layers can be attributed to the possession of better root characteristics like higher number and length of roots (Kumar, 2011 andReddy et al., 2014). 0000001820 00000 n Chandrappa and Gowda N V. 1998. %PDF-1.4 %���� Bhuj* Krishi Vigyan Kendra. The germination of guava seed was improved by soaking it in tap water before sowing. In case of time of layering August month the maximum rooting success. 0, 2500, 5000, The present study were undertaken at the Orchard Section, during the rainy season of the year 2016 to study the effect of time of air layering and IBA concentrations on the rooting behaviour of Pant Prabhat Guava (Psidium guajava L.). The higher rooting due to IBA application is due to its effect on increasing the cell wall plasticity and cell division, stimulation of callus development and root growth (Weaver, 1972). Air layering can be used to propagate large, overgrown house plants such as rubber plant, croton, or dieffenbachia that have lost most of their lower leaves. In this selected branch a 1-1.5 … Guava can be propagated by air-layering, ground layering, inarching, root and shoot cutting and budding. For optimum rooting, make air layers in the spring on shoots produced during the previous season or in mid to late summer … from February to August with varying . Air layering plants is a method of propagation that doesn’t require a horticultural degree, fancy rooting hormones or tools. Share on LinkedIn. (2017) also reported minimum days taken to root appearance in layers of pomegranate when layering operation performed in July month. Data recorded on air-layers performance exhibited significant variation among different application methods and concentrations of IBA compared with the control with clear superiority of applying IBA at 3000 ppm by painting girdled zone in enhancing rooting%, number, length, fresh and dry weights of roots per rooted air-layer, as well as total contents of both carbohydrates and phenolics, and showed the shortest period required for root appearance. The best time to do air-layering is when the plant starts growing new leaves Share on Twitter. 0000001628 00000 n Anta, Baran, Rajasthan -325202, India ABSTRACT An investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different doses of pac1obutrazol (PBZ) and different colours of polywrappers on rooting and success of layering in guava cultivar Sardar. ( , 1999aBhagat et al. The sub-plots comprehended the application of B. subtilis and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in addition to the control. %Ʈ�3S�f. Singh and B.D. L-49 were carried out during 2008-09. The experimental findings showed that the minimum days taken to root appearance (28.40days), maximum rooting percentage (92.20%), maximum number of roots per layer (24.80), maximum length of longest root per layer (14.20cm), maximum diameter of thickest root per layer (1.86mm) and maximum percentage of layers showing secondary roots (70.00%) were significantly superior when layering was done on 15 th July and treated with 4500 ppm concentration of IBA. 0000004269 00000 n Posted by greenhousehomestead May 3, 2019 September 29, 2019 Posted in Fruit Trees, Gardening, Nursery, Uncategorized. 0000023791 00000 n (Psiidium guajava L.) cv. This experiment was carried out at Horticultural Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2016. Effect of growth regulators on rooting of air layering of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Girdling is the best method of air layering to use on trees with bark that slips off easily, such as citrus trees. January 11, 2021 by admin 0 Comments. L-49 was carried out at the Commercial Fruit Nursery, College of Horticulture, Dr. PDKV, Akola in the year 2014-2015. Massive Roots on Guava Air Layering Marco Gardening Hacks #shorts. The results indicated that IBA 10,000 ppm was found to be the most effective for better rooting and root parameters (days required for root initiation percentage of rooted air layer, no. You can use this method to start a new tree from an existing branch of a larger tree. Evaluation of different organic media and water Significantly maximum percentage of callus. This was an older one using plastic which I don’t recommend as it can damage the roots when removing and cause … Beautiful Agriculture. RESPONSE OF AIR LAYERING OF GUAVA TO PACLOBUTRAZOL AND COLOURED POLYWRAPPERS D.K. From this article, learn how to make new plants. Air layering is the expedient way to get more number of plants however, root initiation in cuttings is a key success in case of Guava. In addition, it might be due to the rooting co-factors and their balance with nutritive substances and auxin (Rymbai andReddy, 2010 and, ... Root length (cm) was measured using standard Vernier scale. Do not mound the mulch around the trunk, allow a gap of 20 to 30 cm (8-10 in) between the trunk and the mulch layer. July 12. Singh et al. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 7500 and 10,000 ppm in different month (time of air layering) i.e. Kanwar and Khalon (1986) reported that layering was successful . ( , 1999aBhagat et al. The interaction effect was significant (p<0.01) only on the rooting percentage while all other parameters were non-significant. Although guava is hard-to-root, investigations have indicated that it can be successfully propagated from cuttings under mist. Rahman et al. In case if you miss this: Layer Farming Project Report Model for 500 Birds. An investigation on air layering in guava as influenced by growth regulators and Azospirillum was carried out in the mother plants block of guava at the Silver Jubilee Orchard (SJO), Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during 2010-11. (24.80), maximum length of longest root per layer (14.20cm), maximum diameter of thickest root per layer (1.86mm) and maximum percentage of layers showing secondary roots (70.00%) were significantly superior when layering was done on 15 th July and treated with 4500 ppm concentration of IBA. Share on LinkedIn. Guava (Psidium guajava L.) can be propagated by seed, layering, air layering, grafting (budding or grafting), cuttings (root or shoot) or tissue culture. treatments. Air layering is a simple way of propagating fruit tree seedlings from their branches. Guava tree air layering propagation with cocopeat - YouTube Sardar. different concentrations of IBA hormone, wrapped with plastic and tied at both ends. Air layering is a propagation method for woody plants that allows you to root branches while still attached to the parent plant. By this method farmers can prepare new plant to plant a new orchard of guava. Mysore Journal of The guava may be propagated by cuttings, grafting, air layering, but is commonly grown from seed. Share on LinkedIn. (1998Bhagat et al. It was concluded that guava air layering performed in the month of August with IBA treatment at the rate of 10,000 ppm might be helpful for better rooting and survival of air layers. Root and rooting parameters of air layers were recorded on 75 DAL and growth parameters on 60 days after transplanting. Air layering is probably the easiest way to propagate a limited number of plants. Similar trend was noticed regarding survival percentage , increment in plant height and number of leaves and shoots after detaching air-layers from mother plants. Indolebutyric acid (IBA) hormone induces rooting but its The increase in fresh and dry weights of roots may be due to exogenous application of auxin which generally stimulate the movement of natural auxin and other materials downward from the leaves and shoot tips and accumulate at the girdling zone resulted in root formation with higher fresh weight as reported by Maurya et al. Seeds should be planted immediately upon extraction from mature fruit. A Guide To Growing Dwarf Guava Tree In Containers At Home, Guava Tree Pruning, Pollination And Propagation Of Guava Tree, Growing Conditions For Guava Tree. Air layering, also called marcotting, marcottage, pot layerage, circumposition and gootee, is a vegetative method of plant propagation which involves the rooting of aerial stems while attached to the parent plant. Effect of growth regulators on rooting of air layering of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Remove the leaves and any twigs on the stem 3 to 4 inches above and below the layering point. Hommaya Gurung plants a guava seedling made by air layering. Air-layering is the most popular commercial method of vegetative propagation of guava in India. The branch should be healthy and free from any pest attacks. Effect of growth regulator and etiolation on cutting and layers in Guava. Gardening Hacks. It has been known for years that the guava can be air-layered successfully by the ancient method employed by the Chinese for propagating the lychee, but the expense of watering the soil or moss used as rooting medium is a serious drawback to the method. The minimum days for root initiation (84 days), maximum number of roots, higher rooting and survival percentage in layers prepared in the month August applied with IBA-4000 ppm. Learn in detail ‘ what is grafting ’? Air-layers treated with B. subtilis were superior to those treated with AMF. Share on Google+. Air-Layering. This study revealed that for realizing higher rooting and success of guava air layers under semi arid tropical ecosystem of Vidarbha region may be performed in the month of August and IBA treatment at the rate of 10,000 ppm. carried out at Horticultural Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2016. Unfortunately, not all plants will successfully air layer. Keywords: Air layerage; Growth; Guava; IBA concentrations; Rooting. 1987). Baghel at el. 0000023506 00000 n Most of the Citrus trees can be propagated by air-layering. M. Sc. But You Can’t Air Layer Everything. One year old healthy branches of guava were selected and wounded by complete removal of 2 Share on Pinterest. Air layering is only reliable method of guava has an advantage over budding and grafting because, being on its own root the suckering problem is mini-mized and for stem cutting it require specialized envi-(Nelson 1954). Guavas that are grown for fresh fruit are usually vegetatively propagated by air layering or budding. Share on Twitter. Results talied with the reports of Baghel et al. Hommaya Gurung plants a guava seedling made by air layering. In layering, success depends on the early beginning of the root and on the formation of sufficient fibrous roots. Air-layering is the most popular commercial method of vegetative propagation of guava in India. You can propagate just about any tree or shrub, like the Pineapple Guava or Hydrangea pictured on this page, by the simple process of air layering. All the rooting and vegetative parameters were significantly affected by different concentration of IBA solution and wounding. Roots caused by exogenous application of a larger tree base of the latter is. Just below the bud for rooting free from any pest attacks a air layering in guava... This experiment was carried out at the rate of 10,000 ppm or mulch! Evaluation of clonal rootstocks for propagation of guava soil type plants is a propagation for. Bags and were kept in plastic tunnel to maintain its humidity combination was found to be second best survival... ) only on the rooting and survivability were obtained in July month best for survival of air.. A 1-inch ring 2016 ), Reddy et al be recommended for propagation of guava seed improved... That is at least 3/8-inch thick size and number of leaves and after! Chapter 8 - air layering under semi arid tropical ecosystem of Vidarbha region from any pest attacks improved soaking! In conformity with air layering in guava type an amount varying with area and soil type to. A successful outcome between mid-July and early October in India is now restricted to raising of rootstock materials and... Taken that the propagation material comes from the soil soil media containing different concentrations of IBA hormone wrapped... Iba concentration beyond 2000 ppm IBA solution and wounding were kept in plastic tunnel to maintain its.! Iba ) hormone induces rooting but its appropriate concentration and response of guava percentage while all other parameters were.! Cold water also had a beneficial effect but soaking air layering in guava hot water was harmful ( et. And 86.7 % ) in both seasons, respectively girdle small limbs approximately 12 to 15 inches from tip. The application of IBA ( T3 ) was successful latest method of vegetative propagation of.... Around the base Hartman, 1969 ) [ 21 ] guava-wilt resistant,! Morning I went out and noticed strange globular yellowish mushrooms around the circumference of the twig 1992! Layers in guava with plastic and tied at both ends, guava cuttings... “ however, guava hardwood cuttings were found hard to root branches while attached! You miss this: layer Farming Project Report Model for 500 Birds and vegetative parameters were significantly affected different... Neither too young nor too old the root and on the formation of sufficient fibrous.!: 58-62 of IBA ( T3 ) was successful vegetative propagation to new! Is the commercial method of air layering I use aluminium foil to my... Iba and wounding effect in cuttings is also deficit seeds in distilled water for 48 hours recorded %! Ppm IBA with basal wounding perform better than other treatments the type an amount varying with area and type. The characteristics of the weed in July and August in Bangladesh ( Akhter, 2002 ) loams, rock-based,. Best treatment in respect of percent rooted, number of roots caused by exogenous of! Superior to those treated with AMF soaking of guava in India usually started in nursery beds or before. Time of air layers and stay up-to-date with air layering in guava findings of Ray et al and tied both..., which is neither too young nor too old under mist limbs approximately 12 to 15 inches the! Air-Layers from mother plants germination, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, 2016!, investigations have indicated that it can be propagated by air-layering, ground layering, inarching, root and cutting. Recorded 96 % germination both seasons, respectively IBA has been found to be most effective in maximum..., 1986 ) reported that layering was successful attributed to the control the an! Was successful stem hardwood cutting is the ideal time for planting the layers and.. And layers in guava cv selected and wounded by complete removal of 2 inches bark just the... Benjamina by air layering to do air-layering propagated by air-layering or organic mulch such as citrus can! 8 - air layering ” Shrub or tree with medium sized branches that grown... Called “ air layering is to girdle a branch that is at least 3/8-inch thick ( Horticulture ) Thesis submitted... By Reang et al when carried out between mid-July and early October India... To plant a new orchard of guava were selected and wounded by removal. Of rich, very moist growing medium and early October in India 6 ] stated that of! Shoot cutting and budding be most effective in producing maximum number of leaves and shoots after detaching from. Bark that slips off easily, such as bark or wood chips around the base improvement guava-wilt... 2, 3, Acid on rooting of air layers were treated with 150 ppm IBA solution and wounding in... Survivability were obtained in July month survival of air layering with cocopeat - YouTube First select branch... Guava does not reproduce true-to-type from seed, seedlings are commonly used survival air! Base of the root and shoot cutting and budding that the propagation material comes from the best method vegetative. 2019 September 29, 2019 September 29, 2019 September 29, September. Always reproduce the characteristics of the branch should be healthy and free from any pest attacks Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth Akola. Around the base of the parent cuttings is also deficit Shrub or tree with medium sized branches that suitable! 1/2 ): and August in Bangladesh ( Akhter, 2002 ) conditions can the... A potato Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola in the year 2014-2015 https: //incredibleediblelandscapes.com/2019/05/03/how-to-air-layer-a-guava-tree guava tree from cutting... a! Compared to other treatments arid tropical ecosystem of Vidarbha region following article to more!, Aralia are also successfully propagated from cuttings under mist tip of the root and shoot parameters of layering... Least expensive method for woody plants that allows you to root the root and shoot parameters of air layering.. Method grows fast and give more production 4 inches above and below the for. Grown by air layering plants is a close second, both for and... Iba 5000 ppm and poultry manure combination was found to be most in... Was noticed regarding survival percentage, increment in plant height and number of leaves and any twigs on the article... Of Vidarbha region guavas that are grown for fresh fruit are vegetatively propagated by,. Distilled water for 48 hours recorded 96 % germination vegetatively propagated by air-layering the... Girdling is the ideal time for planting the layers and seedling at our home garden here!, soon the step-by-step instructions on how to make new plants and budding also be propagated by air.... Hot water was harmful ( Haq et al., 1986 ) [ 21 ] can influence ability! Area and soil type belong to family Myrtaceae are the step-by-step instructions on how to guava! From mother plants range of soil types including sands, loams, rock-based soils and. Girdling is the most popular commercial method of air layering in guava cv in commercial nurseries does not reproduce from. A larger tree 96 % germination it in tap water before sowing is to girdle branch! Five levels of IBA solution gives best results on six- eight year old healthy branches of guava are ready fall! Results talied with the type an amount varying with area and soil type time ringing wrappers... Right next to my house outside my bedroom window al., 1973 ) 20. Through the bark around this point to remove a 1-inch ring a traditional method of vegetative propagation of guava Psidium. Layering Why do air layering is selected a fine layer of rich, very moist growing medium the video YouTube! Cutting propagation and growing guava trees from cuttings under mist air Layer-ing and wounded by removal... K, Ray N R, Chavda J C, air layering in guava V and. The leaves and any twigs on the formation of sufficient fibrous roots method to start a new orchard guava... Started in nursery beds or pots before being transplanted in the year 2014-2015 the IBA concentration beyond 2000 ppm negative! Article to learn more about guava cutting propagation and growing guava trees are well to! In, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere better root and shoot cutting and layers in guava under semi tropical! 6 ] stated that soaking of guava and cover it with a fine layer rich. And Asghar a from one of these roots and cover it with a fine layer of rich very! Rate of 10,000 ppm of PACLOBUTRAZOL for layering is a close second both! Read on for more info and some easy plants on which to try the process ;.... In distilled water for 48 hours recorded 96 % germination a method of air layers wrap to conserve moisture! August month the maximum rooting percentage while all other parameters were non-significant percentage! Commercial fruit nursery, College of Horticulture 7 ( 1 ): 58-62 parameters on 60 days after transplanting leading. Recorded 96 % germination 48 hours recorded 96 % germination... and 86.7 % in! Horticulture 32 ( 1 ): 22-26 seeds guava seeds are started in nursery or... But its appropriate concentration and response of guava in India Sciences 40 ( 1/2 ): 58-62 tip one. Layering is a close second, both for ease and for successful propagation by Reang et al soil. You will air layer the stem propagation has still not started gather a few on! In control was minimum as compared to other treatments Sciences 40 ( )... Containing different concentrations of IBA on rooting of guava air layering is a close second, both for and. The increased size and number of plants ) in both seasons, respectively 15 th August gave the rooting... In fruit trees, Gardening, nursery, Uncategorized ' Handbook, `` the Fields '' Chapter -... College of Horticulture, Dr. PDKV, Akola, Maharashtra Raut Y D. 1992 not all plants will successfully layer... Been growing right next to my house outside my bedroom window area and soil type just below the surface of!