This type of benchmarking often results in short term benefits. 2 Collection of Information Information can be broadly classified under the sub texts of primary data and secondary data. The SSCI Benchmarking Process specifies the method under which a third-party audit or certification scheme is benchmarked against the requirements defined in the SSCI Benchmark Requirements, v1.0, Part II and III. The objective of benchmarking is to use the data gathered in your benchmarking process to identify areas where improvements can be made by: Determining how and where other companies are achieving higher performance levels than your company has been able to achieve. It is defined as measuring that of the strongest competition in order to establish ‘best practice’. Dimensions typically measured are quality, time, and cost. An example demonstrates the process… 0000006225 00000 n The benchmarking process helps you to know your organisation, understand its competition, define the best processes, and integrate them into your business activities. ₪ process benchmarking – which focuses on discrete work processes and operating practices; ₪ performance benchmarking – which compares products and services; and ₪ strategic benchmarking – which examines how companies compete (Bogan & English, 1994). Its power lies in its ability to produce bottom-line results. startxref Collect and analyze data. • “Benchmarking” is the continuous activity of identifying, understanding and adapting best practice and processes that will lead to superior performance. 105 15 In strategic benchmarking a company not only focuses on processes but examines the entire way they are doing business. Achieving improvements in key processes to obtain quick benefits Functional Benchmarking. Some of the benefits of benchmarking include the identification of internal opportunities for improvement and the growth of the organization. 0000001546 00000 n Up front, define why you want to benchmark. 6���C�;���i9-���!�X�Ң�Z5d3DB�ˇ�c�� Bjd�HeJ�b��S�e��`zs69w�. Best practice benchmarking or process benchmarking This is to compare the methods and practices for performing processes. <<44597FD78CCEB84FA003BB773D2B1B1C>]>> :�ҖZ �T�y��-wUj"&> /;E��^��Y�n�?FRQ��,C{Bia���ϛ{��#�j0�tp43 �]*t�k$�� Process benchmarking refers to the practice of looking ‘behind’ reported performance results (metrics) and analysing the different internal processes which generate these. Benchmarking Seminar and PPT with pdf report: Benchmarking is the process of continuously comparison of one organization’s practices and performance from other industries. This type of benchmarking often results in short term benefits. The … Process benchmarking – In process benchmarking the organization focuses on discrete work processes and operating practices. Terms Definitions; Benchmarking : … 0000001956 00000 n Process benchmarking invariably involves producing process maps to facilitate comparison and analysis. x�b```f``Z������ Ȁ ��l@q� L@>354\�p`C^����.�l[��`x9!�����'Y�5nv�t���� ���nZ�}g��|�k�s�S��Ladqh5y|ѐer�C�IhXl[t���c��y���n��b��q�1�&[:$��c:�v����Ո�����+ L= Identifying the need for Benchmarking; Understanding the existing process and practices; Obtaining support and approval from the top management. Benchmarking agreements and training increase familiarity with the benchmarking process and can help to reduce these barriers. 0000005336 00000 n The author points out that each can be investigated by the benchmarking process. H��W�n�8}�Ẉ]�4��(�q�"�&H���(��4��r"{�_�C��dE���F��3�sf����n���۷����9Px���|�cD `%#΂r�83i%i�7��|���l��_�&y� �h���F�2"�8M,'�����|��D��]V���G��0�%CZ����h�(΍o=[�8� �?� 1��������j��%��,Մj\l��&gi�ܭWſY� ����}��Q��U���������/po��$n���yIMS^���j)%BSYR��.-�*�h93L�s�k��u�1c�)��Í��-�������d'�����i�����ŕT��˄K��w����P�$בƗ��}���O��|�zg��!�Е�9�K�y��x�%�a�K�W/�L�,�v%hĤ�k)�1��D� ? 0000013980 00000 n The effectiveness of any given performance measure depends on how it will be used. 0000001647 00000 n Prior to engaging in benchmarking, it is imperative that corporate stakeholders identify the activities that need to be benchmarked. The objective is to identify and understand best practices, and a best practice is, simply, the best way to execute a process[1]. Best Practice Benchmarking best practice benchmarking is the most powerful type of benchmarking. x�bbJa`b``Ń3� ���ţ�A-` q�� Following this, Xerox defined benchmarking as 'the process of measuring its products, Services, and practices against its toughest competitors, identifying the gaps and establishing goals. Importance of benchmarking process in service marketing. Benchmarking - the process of comparing . 0000003249 00000 n Benchmarking has also been divided into two parts: practices and metrics. These phases are as follows: planning, analysis, integration, action, and maturity. 2 Collection of Information Information can be broadly classified under the sub texts of primary data and secondary data. Benchmarking – a definition Benchmarking is the continuous process of comparing and measuring an organization’s business processes against those of business leaders anywhere in the world. The Benchmarking Process. Implementing steps … Dimensions typically measured are quality, time, and cost. Preferably, these comparisons are made with businesses from the same sector, but it is possible to use benchmarking between businesses from other sectors as well. Importance of benchmarking process in service marketing. Process benchmarking is done by collecting information about other company’s strategies through research, visiting the sites, through workshops conducted by other companies. Process Benchmarking: Demonstrate how top performing companies accomplish the specific process in question. Preparation of report, regarding the differences in standard and actual results. The consequence of these executed processes and activities is the company’s performance on which performance benchmarking is focused. Following this, Xerox defined benchmarking as 'the process of measuring its products, Services, and practices against its toughest competitors, identifying the gaps and establishing goals. Benchmarking is a continual process that, if done properly, will keep companies competitive and successful. Purpose of benchmarking Objectives enchmarking is defined as Zthe process of comparing performance or practices between two entities [. endstream endobj 499 0 obj<> endobj 500 0 obj<> endobj 501 0 obj<> endobj 502 0 obj<> endobj 503 0 obj<>stream benchmarking process involves first identifying the best practices, either internally or externally, then comparing Benchmarking . First it used formally by Rank-Xerox Corporation. a series of actions, steps, functions, or activities that bring about an end or a result, in this case, the identification and importation of best prac-tices to improve performance. �V��)g�B�0�i�W��8#�8wթ��8_�٥ʨQ����Q�j@�&�A)/��g�>'K�� �t�;\�� ӥ$պF�ZUn����(4T�%)뫔�0C&�����Z��i���8��bx��E���B�;�����P���ӓ̹�A�om?�W= trailer 0000002175 00000 n Process of Benchmarking. H���yTSw�oɞ����c [���5la�QIBH�ADED���2�mtFOE�.�c��}���0��8�׎�8G�Ng�����9�w���߽��� �'����0 �֠�J��b� 0000002400 00000 n �J��e� �=�̛Z:5�=����1:���c��"�lٍ�2����-j�r��y&�N=jp�b����ᰐ@&��PFd�P�W(���� -`���ut�x�� �1��((((榥��E�"BJJ@1%%c���*fc�4�v��1�F!�AA(�A�q���( �&A�:2�����4+�ET��1>�``o�r�f�9�� � ���3�`�a[��@�AzC Process benchmarking – In process benchmarking the organization focuses on discrete work processes and operating practices. Such benchmarking is collected via research, surveys/interviews, and site visits. 2y�.-;!���K�Z� ���^�i�"L��0���-�� @8(��r�;q��7�L��y��&�Q��q�4�j���|�9�� n�3ܣ�k�Gݯz=��[=��=�B�0FX'�+������t���G�,�}���/���Hh8�m�W�2p[����AiA��N�#8$X�?�A�KHI�{!7�. it describes the comparison of performance data obtained by studying similar processes or activities and identifying, adapting, as well as implementing the practices that revealed the best results. No … Benchmarking is defined as the process of measuring products, services, and processes against those of organizations known to be leaders in one or more aspects of their operations. 0000003507 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n Benchmarking measures an organisation’s products, services and processes, to establish targets, priorities V5����H��XKXn���J��=H��ox��v�qC>\�+1��R�L=ʭ���l�s* startxref Determining aspects of the company: can be applied to any business processes. No … What is Benchmarking Benchmarking is the process of comparing one's business processes and performance metrics to industry bests or best practices from other companies. %PDF-1.4 %���� Process benchmarking seeks to identify the most effective operating practices from many companies that perform similar work functions. %%EOF can be classified under performance or process benchmarking. The comparisons may evaluate progress in achieving given goals or targe… 0000005998 00000 n ��B���B`&� �a Benchmarking uses historical information and experience to identify standards and best practice. This file may not be suitable for users of assistive technology. Benchmarking Seminar and PPT with pdf report . can be applied to any business processes. f$$k4��p�A;���]�ሣ�F{� 4Y���O,����u�j�X� • Designing a consortium-based approach for the benchmarking effort, and gaining the benefits of this approach. )�x@ �E#:�f@��D@�`l�z �j�8� &��\Q��ˣ���ET�Q]�(Ͱ�������A�e!�~�~�c�6\^BA�(c�5F[�[E�*�NٿJ�3�1La���P fà&C1P]1P�F�2P&Q!� ��"�a�����H�� Request an accessible format. THe oMbI benCHMarKInG ProCess WHAT IS BENCHMARKING? Achieving improvements in key processes to obtain quick benefits Functional Benchmarking. Sports Direct International PLC. 119 0 obj <>stream • Developing and testing (piloting a benchmarking survey instrument/approach that is appropriate to the study in question – using process, metric, business practice or some combination of these types of methods). Benchmarking is defined as the comparison of products, services, and processes across divisions that carry out similar operations in the same organization, among competing firms in … 0000000751 00000 n Benchmarking Process
Why businesses are not willing to do multi-step benchmarking?
Takes too long often six to nine months
Its costly
The lessons learned may or may not get translated to practice and improvement
Reports that get shelf space, not action
Cumbersome process to complete
Limits Flexibility - procedures oriented
125. benchmarking process involves first identifying the best practices, either internally or externally, then comparing Benchmarking . 0000002138 00000 n xref 105 0 obj <> endobj 1. Process of Benchmarking. 0000003531 00000 n The other companies can be used as evidence of problem areas, and provide possible solutions for each area. For performance measures to have meaning and provide useful information, it is necessary to make comparisons. It seeks to identify standards, or “best practices,” to apply in measuring and improving performance. Benchmarking Defined Benchmarking is the continuous process of comparing one’s business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and/or best practices from other industries. An example demonstrates the process. Process benchmarking focuses on discrete work processes and operating systems, such as the customer complaint process, the order-and-fulfillment process, or the strategic planning process. Purpose of benchmarking Objectives enchmarking is defined as Zthe process of comparing performance or practices between two entities [. 488 22 Identifying best practices. good practice to prioritize in terms of high hazard and risk areas Too few enterprises in tourism today make full use of benchmarking and although there are indeed challenges associated with doing so, you can only ever … Benchmarking Seminar and PPT with pdf report: Benchmarking is the process of continuously comparison of one organization’s practices and performance from other industries. Gradually, Xerox developed its own benchmarking model. Up front, define why you want to benchmark. Benchmarking is more than just gathering data. This step is important—but it can prove difficult when you are trying to … Dimensions typically measured are quality, time and cost. Benchmarking provides a formal exchange of information within an objective structure and timeline (Meade, 1998 Some of the benefits of benchmarking include the identification of internal opportunities for improvement and the growth of the organization. 488 0 obj <> endobj It is a way of measuring a firm’s strategies and performance against "best-in-class” firms, both inside and outside the industry. By identifying the “best” practices, organizations know where they stand in relation to other companies. Making a comparison between the firm’s processes and performance with those of rivals. N'��)�].�u�J�r� A particular benchmarking change will often be temporary. By identifying how others perform the same functional task or objective, people gain insight and ideas they may not otherwise achieve. benchmarking process, with a leader or leaders being duly appointed, so as to ensure the smooth, timely implementation of the project. Benchmarking is defined as “the process of identifying and learning from best practices anywhere in the world” (Allan, 1997). Benchmarking is more than giving marks. 0000002432 00000 n Process benchmarking seeks to identify the most effective operating practices from many companies that perform similar work functions. These steps provide all the aspects of the companies which can provide them an actual success rate of their company. �@�L\���`�)�_C�4��6 m���md�c����|^,�k�;�Ms�Ҭ��ʹfk���t][vu�����y��������D ��� The emphasis of the organization is on the observation and investigation of critical processes and operations with a goal of identifying and observing the best practices from one or more benchmark organizations. Process Benchmarking A guide to help you adopt a more structured approach to Process Benchmarking in your business External benchmarking is simply the planned and systematic comparison of performance and processes with other businesses. h�l�_O�0���)�����8v�����6`0�4�SU��fЄ�a�o�k�a�"������������.���9�}b�,@��"GQ�Ҩ���m�$E!DnI=���`��ٷ�{���l��5q����TJ�슧h��mr�Sͦ��ƌ�+?�X�Giq߆�1i trailer 0000001461 00000 n 0000024925 00000 n The author points out that each can be investigated by the benchmarking process. 0000020342 00000 n The SSCI Benchmarking Process specifies the method under which a third-party audit or certification scheme is benchmarked against the requirements defined in the SSCI Benchmark Requirements, v1.0, Part II and III. For instance, the processes that merit such consideration would generally be core activities that have the potential to give the business in question a competitive edge. The benchmarking process is a process in which all the different steps are included which helps all the companies from similar or different work field find out their strengths and weakness. In OMBI’s case, benchmarking involves comparing each others’ performance data over time to gain a better understanding of the factors that drive performance and the practices that support municipal excellence . Comparing the competition’s processes and strategies against your own. Activity analysis will be required where the objective is to benchmark cost and efficiency; increasingly applied to back-office processes where outsourcing may be a consideration. The emphasis of the organization is on the observation and investigation of critical processes and operations with a goal of identifying and observing the best practices from one or more benchmark organizations. Benchmarking is a process i.e. endstream endobj 106 0 obj <> endobj 107 0 obj <> endobj 108 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 109 0 obj <> endobj 110 0 obj [/ICCBased 115 0 R] endobj 111 0 obj <> endobj 112 0 obj <> endobj 113 0 obj <>stream It is defined as measuring that of the strongest competition in order to establish ‘best practice’. endstream endobj 508 0 obj<>/Size 488/Type/XRef>>stream Management theory and practice have long established a link between effective performance measures and effective management (Drucker, 1995). Improvements from learning mean doing things 0000002113 00000 n A benchmarking process is a structured approach that requires the collection of data (via a questionnaire), analysis, and reporting. Outsourcing has become a strategic decision for most of the organizations in the present context of globalization and circular economy. h���?�1$%c'A�a�ի�&LYn���") V,��f_zҥ[���r��8A��F�g����"�h���ի]����Fs�Ȱ#�`����08�v8���U���>iUc�y„�_�x_�� n�Ԟ�F˄��8M�#[tC@S�Rm�����%PV�����((eQ�T�������]�RX:@�Ȼ��R�T����Ug;/sE��c6��:�$�dc�֩G�(����4�& 'f���&,����hr,~�9]Y��C��An��} �+:�͌D����:�fǢi�w�nn,��\���H4��0�t���4*g���\`� �����4�O��q���t�����R���N�Tj�E�~Q�����O8�ի�P�(��cU�W}��R��4�]��?mr3�4���;M`�2�.����HVEzS=��f?��G���4�˳du���X�v�&�[�S���|p.�|^��+}��I6���M^m���״���=w�%���� ��e� This step involves creating a plan for collecting data from selected targets, conducting … Thus, the process of benchmarking is closed, forming a cycle (see Figure 1), thus providing a constant and continuous process of the company improvement. Process benchmarking focuses on discrete work processes and operating systems, such as the customer complaint process, the order-and-fulfillment process, or the strategic planning process. Identifying the need for Benchmarking; Understanding the existing process and practices; Obtaining support and approval from the top management. Benchmarking is a continual process that, if done properly, will keep companies competitive and successful. Business process reengineering (BPR) is a management approach aiming at improvements by means of elevating efficiency and effectiveness of … In some cases, a model has been uniquely developed for performing a particular type of benchmarking. Gradually, Xerox developed its own benchmarking model. Process benchmarking invariably involves producing process maps to facilitate comparison and analysis. Exhibit 5 illustrates each phase of the benchmarking process. conducting process benchmarking, by which the company tries to improve the efficiency of its processes for executing the set strategies. 0000006232 00000 n Its power lies in its ability to produce bottom-line results. Best practice benchmarking or process benchmarking This is to compare the methods and practices for performing processes. C)�.�?���L���Y0(��O"sF 4��qs�Y�ˁ� � %紇 Benchmarking studies may be more or less general in the topics they address. The SSCI Benchmarking Requirements form the basis for all SSCI benchmarking and re-benchmarking of applicant Schemes. Improvements from learning mean doing things <<39EF0132092AC94492CA7402F08B1301>]>> Gather data. 0000044826 00000 n 0000005563 00000 n Benchmarking Examples: 2.0. The systems and procedures associated with the SSCI Benchmarking … Benchmarking is part of the process of continuous improvement in Service Marketing. 0000004115 00000 n Benchmarking Studies Benchmarking engagements might typically involve: Benchmarking Process … �ꇆ��n���Q�t�}MA�0�al������S�x ��k�&�^���>�0|>_�'��,�G! 0000001165 00000 n A benchmark is an established point of reference against which things can be measured and compared . 0000017161 00000 n Benchmarking Defined Benchmarking is the continuous process of comparing one’s business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and/or best practices from other industries. Sports Direct International PLC has been a renown British retailing organization established since 1982 by Mike Ashley. Benchmarking is part of the process of continuous improvement in Service Marketing. This involves a process of comparing practices and procedures to those of the best to identify ways in which an organisation can make improvements. The objective of this knowl-edge is to learn how to design and operate processes in a much better way than is currently happening. Our goal is always to achieve superiority in quality, product reliability and cost.' Benchmarking Terms. First it used formally by Rank-Xerox Corporation. 0000006584 00000 n Benchmarking is the measurement of an organization’s internal processes and performance data and a comparison with those of related and comparable organizations. Through dissection and analysis of process elements, benchmarking partners can learn from the best in class and adapt their own internal processes to generate improved results. november/december 2015 21. one’s performance to the best practices using metrics such as time, quality and cost. �x������- �����[��� 0����}��y)7ta�����>j���T�7���@���tܛ�`q�2��ʀ��&���6�Z�L�Ą?�_��yxg)˔z���çL�U���*�u�Sk�Se�O4?׸�c����.� � �� R� ߁��-��2�5������ ��S�>ӣV����d�`r��n~��Y�&�+`��;�A4�� ���A9� =�-�t��l�`;��~p���� �Gp| ��[`L��`� "A�YA�+��Cb(��R�,� *�T�2B-� 2. Benchmarking has also been divided into two parts: practices and metrics. Benchmarking can be applied at three levels. 0 Process benchmarking refers to the practice of looking ‘behind’ reported performance results (metrics) and analysing the different internal processes which generate these. Benchmarking can be applied at three levels. Benchmarking is an ongoing, systematic process for measuring and comparing the work processes of one organisation with those of another, by bringing an external focus to internal activities, functions, or operations (from Kempner, 1993). 0000000016 00000 n Benchmarking: An International Journal available volumes and issues . x�b```b``������.� �� l�, �9��Nq\�t�ł�#��4���Xz�",��"�����430���x$$0O20,jm��ᰠ�����a��Y��b5�����<< X���\��ί%��p������dV%;��/�-\,��B%7�_�ie2|��$��kV+pЕ�$���2�l�4[ޛ��~q *����J���p�%>s��z�k��fht���`r|�h�����X�\��0�� ��E�9����1L�ظ�}�J��e���bV~Ng�9� ���@+)ut@������ b Best practice in benchmarking . This paper aims to demonstrate the benchmarking process of the customer support provided by Sports Direct against Amazon’s, and how Six Sigma can also be used to achieve best performances. Thus, individual types of benchmarking are interrelated and their findings are intertwined. 0000003113 00000 n It is used in the strategic management, in which the initiating firm focuses its observation and investigation of business processes with a goal of identifying and observing the best practices from one or more benchmark firms. The focus on process benchmarking continued, but in the late 1980s two new phases emerged: strategic and global benchmarking. Benchmarking Seminar and PPT with pdf report . purpose and method are clear, then the benchmarking process will act as a stimulus for strategic thinking, accelerate innovation and enable Zgood practices [ to be fast-tracked for earlier ROI. • A “benchmark” is a reference or measurement standard used for comparison. Benchmarking is fairly universal method that can be used to satisfy a wide range of requirements for improvement on the various directions. Identifying best practices. Most organisations are faced with the realisation that they need to improve indicators (measurements) such as return on assets, market share, customer satisfaction, and net profits. Books and journals ... pdf (232 KB) Outsourcing and reverse supply chain performance: a triple bottom line approach Saurabh Agrawal, Rajesh Kumar Singh. ��w�G� xR^���[�oƜch�g�`>b���$���*~� �:����E���b��~���,m,�-��ݖ,�Y��¬�*�6X�[ݱF�=�3�뭷Y��~dó ���t���i�z�f�6�~`{�v���.�Ng����#{�}�}��������j������c1X6���fm���;'_9 �r�:�8�q�:��˜�O:ϸ8������u��Jq���nv=���M����m����R 4 � november/december 2015 21. one’s performance to the best practices using metrics such as time, quality and cost. xref "F$H:R��!z��F�Qd?r9�\A&�G���rQ��h������E��]�a�4z�Bg�����E#H �*B=��0H�I��p�p�0MxJ$�D1��D, V���ĭ����KĻ�Y�dE�"E��I2���E�B�G��t�4MzN�����r!YK� ���?%_&�#���(��0J:EAi��Q�(�()ӔWT6U@���P+���!�~��m���D�e�Դ�!��h�Ӧh/��']B/����ҏӿ�?a0n�hF!��X���8����܌k�c&5S�����6�l��Ia�2c�K�M�A�!�E�#��ƒ�d�V��(�k��e���l ����}�}�C�q�9 0000002478 00000 n Process benchmarking gives a clear comparison of the other organization’s ideas and their market strategies with them. Process benchmarking - the initiating firm focuses its observation and investigation of business processes with a goal of identifying and observing the best practices from one or more benchmark firms. Preparation of report, regarding the differences in standard and actual results. Our goal is always to achieve superiority in quality, product reliability and cost.' 0000001388 00000 n Benchmarking is a wellplanned and systematic process with clear objectives and - mechanisms to measure, compare and discover innovative practices, evaluate if these suit adapt practices, and implement or improvement. Benchmarking is the process of identifying, understanding and adapting outstanding practices from within the same organisation or from other businesses to help improve performance (Cook, 1995:13). 0000009254 00000 n For the optimal results of benchmarking to be reaped, the inputs and outputs need to be redefined; the activities chosen should b… It seeks to identify standards, or “best practices,” to apply in measuring and improving performance. A benchmarking process is a structured approach that requires the collection of data (via a questionnaire), analysis, and reporting. 0000000596 00000 n 0 The systems and procedures associated with the SSCI Benchmarking … It is used in the strategic management, in which the initiating firm focuses its observation and investigation of business processes with a goal of identifying and observing the best practices from one or more benchmark firms. The SSCI Benchmarking Requirements form the basis for all SSCI benchmarking and re-benchmarking of applicant Schemes. A review of benchmarking literature revealed that there are different types of benchmarking and a plethora of benchmarking process models. %PDF-1.4 %���� benchmarking process is repeated. Sometimes it is the overall corporate structure and organization that is restricting a company from reaching optimal levels. projected or actual project cost and performance information against information from similar projects - is critical to selecting the right projects at the outset and to set them up for success. benchmarking process, with a leader or leaders being duly appointed, so as to ensure the smooth, timely implementation of the project. Making a comparison between the firm’s processes and performance with those of rivals. Through dissection and analysis of process elements, benchmarking partners can learn from the best in class and adapt their own internal processes to generate improved results. Most organizations are leaner today than in the past, and dedicating the essential resources can be difficult. In a continuous process improvement program, benchmarking is the regular, systematic measuring of an organization’s own products, services or processes against those of the recognized best practitioners in the world. One of the greatest barriers to benchmarking is a lack of resources. ��W��:�B� � Health and safety benchmarking is a five-step cycle aimed at ensuring continuous improvement. 0000002652 00000 n Such processes would generally command a high cost, volume or value. 0000003285 00000 n This poses the following problems: it can create confusion among the users as to whether they should use only the unique benchmarking model that … PDF, 2.19MB, 47 pages. 0000004038 00000 n 10 The benchmarking process consists of five phases. endstream endobj 489 0 obj<>/Outlines 93 0 R/Metadata 109 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 106 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/OCProperties<>/StructTreeRoot 111 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20081110152351)/PageLabels 104 0 R>> endobj 490 0 obj<>/PageElement<>>>/Name(HeaderFooter)/Type/OCG>> endobj 491 0 obj<>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 492 0 obj<> endobj 493 0 obj<> endobj 494 0 obj[/ICCBased 503 0 R] endobj 495 0 obj<> endobj 496 0 obj<> endobj 497 0 obj<> endobj 498 0 obj<>stream To sustain market leadership, however, the habit of benchmarking must be a permanent part of the organization's culture.